The Common Factors

The common factors are various counseling ingredients that are hypothesized to exist across all counseling theories. The counseling relationship is one common factor that has persisted for 80 years.

Rosenzweig's Common Factors

The common factors were first proposed by Rosenzweig (1936), who noticed that most counseling theories seemed to be effective for treating a range of mental health concerns. Rosenzweig called this observation the Dodo Bird Effect, after the dodo bird in Lewis Carroll's book Alice in Wonderland who remarked "Everybody has won, and all must have prizes". The common factors proposed by Rosenzweig were:

Wampold's Common Factors

More recently authors such as Wampold (2001) have proposed updated lists of common factors. The common factors proposed by Wampold (2001) and summarized by Laska, Gurman, & Wampold (2014, p. 469) include:

Bruce Wampold Video

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